The following text has been written by Dr Bob Miller, and represents the research he kindly undertook on behalf of Shapero Rare Books in exploring the history of the Album Amicorum described in our Continental catalogue, Polyglossia.

The Album Amicorum of Rhaban Giese, scholar and medical doctor, native of Danzig, drawing on his travels and acquaintances in Geneva, Lyon, Paris and London between  1618 and 1621


Contents List


1. Introductory essay and overview 2
2. Contents of each page 5
3. Subject and title of professional miniatures 29
4. Tabulation of location and date of entries 32
5. Nationalities of signatories 40
6. Analysis of signatures of James the VI and I 41
7. The signatures of Buckingham and Hamilton 43
8. Other British entries 45
9. Analysis of ten other German-origin Album amicorum or guest books 47
10. Conclusions  
  Not automatically updating



The Album Amicorum of Rhaban Giese, scholar and medical doctor, native of Danzig, drawing on his travels and acquaintances in Geneva, Lyon, Paris and London between  1618 and 1621


Web sites report on a Raban Giese, who was born in Danzig on 24 Jun 1597, who died 7 Jan 1673 also in Danzig, and who could possibly be our Rhaban Giese, since this would make him 22 in 1619, the date of the first entries in our book. This would suggest that he began his travels after finishing university. He was an only child. He married Kordula von Bodeck (1613-1643) in 1635, they had one daughter Barbara in 1640, his wife's death in 1643 may have been in connection with another pregnancy. He is often referred to by the signatories of the book as a Doctor, here an academic title rather than specifically a medical one, although he may be both, as it would seem are many of the signatories. More tellingly one of the persons who has signed the book has been found to refer to him as a "Dantiscanus", which unambiguously situates him as a native of Danzig (p.244 and perhaps also p.246 ‘Dantisci‘). On page 249 one of the contributors, Hermannus Gedering, also refers to himself as a Dantiscanus.


In the book Contemporaries of Erasmus, Volume 2, Toronto 1986, Peter G. Bietenholz, editor, reports in the article Tiedemann GIESE of Gdansk (1480-1550) (cc.96-97) that this Catholic bishop (first of Chelmno, then of Warmia), who was in sympathy with Erasmus, and was a defender of the new heliocentric theory of the solar system of his friend and colleague Nicolaus Copernicus, was the son of Albert Giese, the burgomaster of Gdansk, and was also the nephew of a previous bishop of Warmia. This would seem to suggest that our Giese was raised in a similar situation, as a member of the senior patrician clan in Danzig, the members of which occupied both political and religious posts, which would have prepared him for the trip which he made, although it would seem that in the meantime he and perhaps other members of his family had become Protestants, in his own case Calvinist. (Although the opening display of the arms of the parents of Giese spells the name as Giesy, the entries in the book always use the form Giese, the form Giesy is probably a Latinate grammatical form) Since we have suggested that our Giese is probably the doctor mentioned in the previous paragraph, it would seem that he may have been a younger son, or that the political situation arising from conflict between Catholic and Protestant tendencies in Danzig may have dissuaded him from pursuing a political career.


Throughout the late middle ages Danzig was one of the cities of the Hanseatic League, a political and trading union of cities extending from cities in England and Scandinavia to Riga and Tallinn in modern Latvia and Estonia, but centred on the town of Lubeck in Holstein, the southern part of the Danish peninsular. Danzig was part of this trading complex and would have had a significant German-speaking population. In 1554 the Hanseatic League underwent a reorganisation which made Danzig into the principal city of one of its four territories, together with Lubeck, Brunswick (Braunschweig) and Cologne (Köln). A citizen of Danzig would probably develop a network of contacts including residents of such cities. This would explain why many of Raban's friends designate themselves as Danes (Danus) although linguistically they appear to be German speakers with German names, since Lubeck would have been nominally within the kingdom of Denmark at this time. This remained the case until the Prussian-Danish war initiated by Bismarck specifically in order to unite Schleswig-Holstein with Prussia in a united Germany. Several of the signatories in the book describe themselves as Boruss, the old name of Prussia, but this may actually be an alternate term for that province of the Hanseatic League based in Prussian cities (while Danzig remained part of the Kingdom of Poland).


The book would appear to have been begun in Geneva. This is where most of the oldest entries were made (five are dated 1618 as is the opening title-spread) and the captions of all of the professional miniatures in the book are in French, except that one of them, on page 199, has a caption in German which only rhymes in German, showing that the intended audience is bilingual, suggesting a location in Switzerland. The modern University of Geneva was founded in 1559 by Jean Calvin, the founder of the protestant Church which is the second most well known after the Lutheran church. At the time that this book was made and in use, the members of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches would normally each have attended universities, if at all, of their own religious tendency. The University of Geneva, although at that time only having the status of a college, would have attracted students from all of those communities of Calvinists who did not live in countries, such as Holland or Scotland, the states of which adhered to the Calvinist form of Christianity. Although the language of instruction would in any case be Latin, the University of Geneva would particularly attract German-speaking students from those parts of the German-speaking lands which did not have a state university system based on Calvinist doctrine. This might particularly apply to the cities of the Hanseatic League, which may have broadly followed Lutheran thinking, but where many Calvinists may have lived and worked. Calvinism also remained strong in the kingdom of Poland to the immediate south of Danzig. However, all of the above could also be consistent with Geneva having had from early times a medical school separate from Calvin's college, but attracting foreign students. One of the writers in our book refers to Giese as Nobilissimo ac protestantissimo juveni-viro, the most noble and most Protestant young man, and this writer also refers to him as a Dantiscano, an inhabitant of Danzig, bringing together the two special characteristics of Giese. Many writers also refer to Giese as a Doctor (p.246), although it is not clear whether this refers specifically to medicine.


Rhaban Giese and the vast majority of his friends are tri-lingual, German-French-Latin, some also exhibit some knowledge of Greek, while it appears that most of Giese’s English acquaintances only wrote signatures into the book, in some cases with their personal Latin, English or French mottoes. There is one clearly Italian signatory, other use of Italian or Spanish may be only an additional flourish of well-travelled persons.


After completing his studies, Rhaban Giese appears to have travelled to Lyon and from there to Paris. In both of these places he appears to have made or met many acquaintances. He was also in the Netherlands. Some of his clearly German acquaintances were met in France or the Netherlands, including several who were associated with the Hanseatic League.  He also seems to have travelled to London, but here he may have remained within the community of German-speaking merchants, as he does not appear to have developed any new scientific or medical connections. There are many English signatures in the book, including one of King James, in fact all of the mottoes associated with King James the sixth and first (of Scotland and England, 1566-1625) are found here, Honi soit qui mal y pense, and Beati Pacifici in the coloured crest on p2, which may have been added later, and Parcere subiectis & debellare superbos in the King’s own handwriting on p.3. However, the majority of British signatures are not accompanied by any text (except the person’s personal motto in about half of the cases), indicating that Giese was introduced to these people but did not become familiar with them. Possibly he took a boat from London to Hamburg or a Baltic port. It is striking that neither Giese nor any of his German acquaintances displays any sign of using the Low German dialect which at this time would have been prevalent in Northern Germany and in the traditional Hanseatic ports, showing that the education system of these cities at the level of persons such as Giese was propagating a High German form of the language.


In this tabulation of the contents of the Album Amicorum it will be seen that some pages are left blank, some contain only commercially produced professional illustrations, some contain professional illustrations with later additions of personal text, and a very few contain text by more than one contributor. A large proportion of the entries include the coats of arms of the person signing, it may be assumed in these cases that the arms were initially sketched by the signee with a code to indicate the colours, these were later filled in with commercial paints.


0/1 Remains of an ex-libris, written over this the name Minger in black ink (on a pastedown inside front cover) Blank
2/3 Coat of arms of Great Britain and Ireland, with lion and unicorn, above the motto "Beati Pacifici", in red, blue, yellow, green brown over a black ink sketch, and with the motto "Hon y soit qui mal y pense" around the arms. The date 1620, text "Parcere subiectis & debella re Superbos, Jacobus P". This is the personal motto of James I of England. This entry is discussed in the essay below.
4/5 Blank Blank
6/7 Composition across both columns, united by the date, 1---6 on page.6 and 1---8 on page 7. This date tells us that book was begun in 1618, there are some entries dated 1618 but most of the other entries are dated 1619-1621.

A roundel, the border is leafwork in green with yellow additions, within this a heraldic shield with helmet above, the device a red lion upper torso above blue bands, the same stylised lion surmounts the shield. Below this the text Rhabani Giesy Paterna ac...(Gedan Pruteni materna insignia)








A roundel, the same style, a shield with a crowned man riding a bear, above the shield another figure of the bear, flanked by antlers, with the text below, Gedan Pruteni materna insignia, i.e. these are the arms of the family of the mother of Rhaban Giesy.

8/9 vray amy tresor inestimable / G. Buckingham / Je suis de la partie / Hamilton – These entries are also discussed in the essay below. Omni solium forti Patria *.*. M.N.Ludyens?
10/11 Blank Tho(mas) Hatton
12/13 Blank Vive memor Lethy / Anthony Barker, a device of three lances surmounted by helmet and a silhouette figure of a naked spear-thrower.
14/15 Blank Blank
16/17 A device of a black lion on red-and-silver shield, with the same lion silhouette above. Latin (Arte et Marti?) and Greek phrases and the name Phillipus Mornagus (lugd?, i.e. Lugdunum?)
18/19 Blank Tout fond en verite fors servir Dieu, Edward Wray
20/21 Blank Ferdinando Carey in Middelsburch 23 Aprill 1621
22/23 Blank Motto: Quam minimum ******* / Nobilissime et clarissime Domino Rabano Gesio patricie ******* ... amicitia ** boni officiis ***** sumpsi Anthwerpico 2. (2o i.e. secundo, or 20 i.e. twenty?) April 1621
24/25 Blank Arth??? Aston Curnall
26/27 Blank Blank
28/29 Blank Blank
30/31 Blank Blank
32/33 Blank Blank
34/35 Blank Blank
36/37 Blank Blank
38/39 Blank Blank
40/41` Blank Blank
42/43 Blank Blank
44/45 Blank Blank
46/47 Blank Blank
48/49 Blank Blank
50/51 Blank Blank
52/53 Blank Blank
54/55 Blank Blank
56/57 Blank UNO opus / undeciphered signature / 6/16 Sept. 1620
58/59 Blank Spudaios zen ariston.

Vivit, qui honeste vivit:

et lucet, qui sic vivit.

Vitia tenebrae sunt:

et hinc mortem iter.

Iam coepit mori, qui malus est;

imo iam mortuus, qui virtutem ex*it.

Erycius Puleanus scripsi Lovanii XVI Kal. Mai, DC-**C-XXI (1621).

60/61 Blank Inest ab omni perte viatimus

Bruxilla 18 Aprilis 1621 ********

62/63 De parvuis, grandis acexuus erit


(blank space 2/3 page)


(In German, a long text dated London 25.1.1621, mentioning among others) ... herrn Rhabanus Gissa ... In London Jan. 25 ... Anno 1621, Johan E*** mano propria 1621.

Live well and dye never

Dye well and live Ever

Inne Englishe

64/65 Blank Tout par amour / rien par force


Arms quatered, four lions, two gold on red, two black(?) on silver


... in Lyons dem 30 Oct 1619 **** Graf von Berlitz(?)

66/67 Blank Poetic lines Nequae Nihill Neque Nimius?, then: O fortuna and then Archibald Rankins, in a different hand below: Johan Philip Knecht, londini adiunxeiunt die 6 7(=Septem)bris 1620
68/69 Blank Professional miniature, "LE ROY DE FRANCE", with regal regalia and wearing fleur-de-lys in gold on a blue garment.
70/71 Blank 1620 Omnia Deo Fortune nihil, with a plain coloured armorial shield, text:includes: ... in Paris dem 7 tag Augusti, Maximilian herr von ****/witz...
72/73 Blank Professional miniature, PRINCE AN DEVIL, the prince is a young page to the devil, who is wearing robes but is revealed by his sinuous snake-like neck.
74/75 Blank Professional miniature, CHEVALIER DU SAINT ESPRIT, a gentleman in fashionable court robes
76/77 Blank Arms of crossed leafed branches, 2 lines of text, then: Adam Godfrid ... Anno 1619
78/79 Arms of a blue eight-pointed star on gold, En dieu mon esperance, Spanish and Latin text signed by Sigismund Guldenstern 1619. Perhaps "Andovan" Andover? M. 9-embri (November) Quatered arms of a lion rampant and silver rings, text undeciphered but dated at Lugduni, Lyons, 30 8-obris?.
80/81 Blank Arms of a knotted white cloth on a red shield, crest of a blind-folded negro clutching at the branches of a tree, signed Stanislaus a Morczyn(?) 1620 1 Marti (in March)
82/83 jamais entrera dan mon coeur

Avarice Trahison ny peur

Rudolph Seydlic (Seydlitz) Baron de Schonfeld, Paris 7(th) Julii 1620

Professional miniature, ROY DANGLETERRE
84/85 Blank Motto Plus penser que dire, simple arms of red shapes on grey, dated 6 Novembris Anno 1619. Signature not read, ****** von dem ****.
86/87 Motto, Le vrai amy se cognoit au besoing, arms of three red rams-heads, dated Bourges 6th November 1619, perhaps Josef von V***ing Professional miniature, CHEVALIER DE IARTIERE.
88/89 Tout vient a temps, qui perdre / Halten? / ****** Bourges dem 8 November 1619 Christopher von der *** L'Honneur ou Mort / arms of a branch cut for use as a weapon / then German text dated 18th March or May 1619
90/91 Blank Motto: Magnus quaestus est pietas, arms of red and white squares, signed by Janus Bille, Danus, Paris, 7th August 1620.
92/93 Motto Tout par amour rien par force, arms of two sickles, one on green, one on red field. Signed in Paris by Moritz von Albersleben, Danus, August 8th 1620. Professional miniature, CHEVALIER DE SAINCT ESTIENNE.
94/95 Blank Professional miniature, UN COMMANDEUR D'ALLEMAGNE.
96/97 Arms of a beheaded red satyr holding an amputated octopus arm, surmounted by a red demon's head, with a dedication by Nicolaus Trolle(?) 7 Augustii Anno 1620. Inscription: A coeur valiant rien impossible, a crest of two facing swans, German text difficult to read but in Chandri dem 14 Octobris 1619, Georg von ******.
98/99 Fide parvum, multum* vide , nam fidere multum, Et vidi se parvum multaque damna parit. / Il faut plus penser, que dire. Zu (...) dem 30 Juni Anno 1620, *** Rantzow. Professional miniature, DAMOISELLE FRANCOISE EN CHAMBRE, with later added inscription in German
100/101 MLCXX (1620 in stylised Latin numbers). Cum tiro(?) et virtute / Mens generosa ultra polos / A plain red and white shield. Nobilissimo viro Domino Rabano Gizio commensali meo amicissimo haec paucula in perpetuam mei memoriam religeri Parisiis. Augusti. Henricus Rantzsvig Danus. Professional miniature, a lady in a brown dress over a red skirt with ruff and fan.
102/103 Blank En dieu mon esperance / an arms of three double rows of fleurs-de-lys surmounted by a wooden bollard transfixed by an arrow / Jucunde recordationis ergo scripsit nobillissime homino possessori Geneve in July. Georgius Henricus Junior LB a ******* et ****dundtsal
104/105 bien ou rien (with a short scrawled signature) A coat of arms, sunburst above, a lion holding a sword below, with the motto  Arte Sorte Marte, and below the text: Haec amoris ergo nobilissimo vire jureni Rhabano Giesio amico suo haud postremo scribebit Sebastiano a Schonich die 24 Sept anno ut supra
106/107 Coat of arms with eight alternating panels of red/gold and silver, to one side a cross, on the other a primitve man (giant?) wearing a skirt and hat both of leaves, with the motto Concordia tes parve crescunt, and the inscription Nobilissimus Vite Domino Rabano Giesis amico suo delectis hoc amicitiae symbolum. apposuit Geneve Anno 1619 die 10 Aprilis. Stheno Bille Danus. Professional miniature, in different style and scale than most others, a noble lady dressed all in black. Text (added later?) Discordia res maxima dilabuntur / Nobilissimo viro Domino Rabano Gesio amico suo singulari hanc amicam manu reliquit Geneva Anno 1619 10 Aprilis Vincentius Billo Danus
108/109 Two lines of text, then in French Chambre vuide font famme folle, below faded dedication to Raban Giese dated July Anno 1619 signed by Johannes Bille Professional miniature, three women captioned UNE CHAMBRIERE, UNE DAMME, UNE FILLE D'HEYDELB(ERG)
110/111 Motto Vive memor lethi, then dedication Nobilissimo *** domino possessorihisce memoriam sui consecrat Lugdunum Bat Anno 1621 2 May, Daniel Treder. Professional miniature, a lady with large ruff, black and brocade garments, without caption.
112/113 Motto Tout par raison ordre et saison, then German dedication 30 April 1621 not deciphered. Armorial quartering a nobleman with a set of tree roots, surmounting three helmets with three distinct emblems, a set of green leaves, an angel, and a nobleman. Text above and below in French, Latin and German, dated 27 May 1619
114/115 Motto Contement passe richesse, then an armorial of alternating yellow and red squares in a cross pattern on a black background, then German text dated 30th October 1619, Arms of a black ram's head, surmounted by a rampant black ram, dated 21 September Anno 1629, German text signed manu propria but  not deciphered.
116/117 Professional miniature, lady with wide ruff, feather fan, dark tight garments on upper body and wide green skirts below, no text. Motto: Virtus calcata vire soit?

Below a dedication, Otto Morx (?) ... 7 Feb Anno 1619

118/119 Motto: Honneur ou mort

A shield with a gold lion on blue ground above a half-shield of red and (silver?) diamond pattern, shield surmounted by dog head and crested helmet with two lions in roundels.

Careless disjointed writing below, ... in Genf, ... 30 May Anno 1619 ...

Arms quartered wfith two panels of three swans swimming, silver on blue, and two panels of three seahorses (or aquatic plants?) gold on red.

Haec paucula nobilissime et politissimo viro Dom amico Geneve residenti Rabano Guesio mes tus scripsi Jacobus van Santon

120/121 Professional miniature, VNE ESPOUSE DE ZURICH, lady with a hat, circular ruff, and large dress of red and gold brocade embroidery. Mottos: Je n'ayme que ce qui me plait / Fide, et constantia.

Arms of a red lion on gold above three white roses on blue, crest above is a crowned black cat with human arms and a gold coronet. German text dated 10 Marti 1619 Johan Meindorff.

122/123 Motto: Tout pour amour / Rien par force

Arms and crest are eagles wings quartered red and white.

Dedication badly written and faded, German, date 1619.

1st motto not read.2nd Motto: En dieu mon esperence.

Arms quartered, black stripes and red bough elements.

German dedication unclear, ends with 1619 and Brunsvic.

124/125 Motto La vertu est la vrai fondement d'amitie.

Arms: black and silver stripes quartered with red branch parts, in the centre a black shield with a silver maltese cross.

Amico meo intimo Rabano Gis*y omnem felicitatum ex animo precans scripse hec ****** 10. d(ie) *****

Motto: honneur sans vertu / ne vaut un festu

A German text gives the date 27 May Anno 1619. No decoration.

126/127 Anno 1620 / Je veux secure(?) tousjours la vertu. Then a badly written German text ... in Rochell Jan 3m May ... Motto: Tu ne cede malis sed contra audientior ito ...

Shield of a angry aggressive ram's head.

Nobillisimus politissimus Domino Rabani Gisio hec liberis que reliquit Genevae 23 May Anno 1619 Johannes Christianus a Benelendorff

128/129 Blank Professional miniature: a lady with piled-up blonde hair, dressed entirely in black, no text.
130/131 Motto: fero et spero

memoriae ergo scripsi nobilis(immo) viro Dom Rhabano Giesio itineris comiti Neoporti in Flandria 5 april 1621 J.L. Danielis

Motto: Non est remedio hec ubi quae vvitia fuerunt mores fiunt

Shield of two gold flurs-de-lys on a red band over a blue shield with gold decorative markings. in Genf dem 9 Juny 1619 (more undeciphered)

132/133 Motto: Si la fortune me tourmente / L'esperance me contente

*****... 30 April Anno 1621 ******

1619, Te nunquam timui

Crossed silver pikestaffs with fleur-de-lis points, on a red shield, emblem above a lady in red gown with gold crown and pigtail

134/135 Motto: Tempore sempera sempora

A simple gold cross with splayed ends Text: Genere, omnique ****** praesapientissimo viro, domino Rabano Giesio, debitae observantia et amoris ergo Geneve die 23 Junii 1619 adscripsis Baptista la Salis

This may be a double entry with the facing page, which is in very similar script, also uses Italian, and does not name the person writing.

Motto: generosa mens laborem amat

A green tree over red and silver, above head and bare torso of a woman with red and silver wings instead of arms, wearing a gold crown

2nd motto: Chi da virtu nonha lo scudo / Mariandogli la robba ressa nudo.

Blank Motto: Vivit post funera Virtus

complex arms, silver over red quartered with gold towers alongside red and silver, above a king in armour with a sword and four gold objects, a second king with an orb and another gold object, and a third figure with a bow and three arrows.

***.. Am 9 Junij Anno 1619 Jacob Kraushar von *****(?)

138/139 Motto: Post nubila probus.

**** nobile viro domino Rhabano Giese amico *** hoc amoris memoriae signum, reliquis Genevae 25 Juny 1619 Joannis a Salis, Rhetus

Professional Miniature: Die dike Seilerin zu Strassburg hat gewogen 5 centner 12 pfunde: Anno 1614. (Unlike the other texts this one is in small straight Gothic letters). A very large woman in a black dress and hat with white petticoats and ruff is shown towering over a leaping male violin player who is half her size.
140/141 Blank An undeciphered motto, then arms on a white shield cut into three panels each containing a green leaf, then a text of which only 16 Jan. 1619 Genev* is readable.
142/143 Motto: L'espoir me fait viure(?)

Van Dalen / en oostende escrit le *d d'Avril 1621

Martial: Quod sis esse relis, nihilque malis: Somnum nec metuas, diem nec optes

Arms: Three white crescent moons on blue, between them a seven-pointed star(fish?) green on gold, above a crest of two raised hands.

Nobilissimo viro Dr rabano Giesio, memoriae ergo *ubens haec scripsi Genevae 22 july Anno 1619 Petrus van der Burche (Mid zel?)

144/145 Motto: consilio et virtute.

Below: 5 lines not deciphered, possibly signed Johan Henrich

Motto: Qui ne cueille rien en sa jeunesse

Il ne trouue rien en sa vieillesse.

Shield cut by a zigzag line, above two pink flowers, on top a crest of horns.

Geneve 15 Sept. Anno 1619.

Nobilissimo Politisque Dr. RHABANO GIESIO magni amoris memoriaque perennaturae tesseram hanc LMque offerebat Marcus a Rehlingen in Ritzarkounen(?)

146/147 Motto: Per angusta ad augusta

*** *** in Leyden Anno 1621 ****

1619: (motto not read)

A blue shield with three silver fleur-de-lys over a tree stump, above three rushes emerging above a silver fleur-s-lys.

Unclear text, dedicated to Rhabano Giesi, and perhaps signed Waldning.

148/149 Pofessional miniature, double-page spread, LE ROY DANGLETERRE / ALANT A LEGLISE, a cobbled surface over both pages, on the left the king rides on a white horse, two noblemen follow him holding his trailing robes, another nobleman acts as page holding his horse's bridle, on the facing page they are preceded by a beefeater with halberd and a herald. (double page see facing page)
150/151 Motto: Vide fortuna rallogra la speranza.

Professional miniature: a young man and woman in peasant dress face each in a field (No text).

Shield and crest of a single armour-gloved hand.

****.. Rhaban Giese In Amsterdam 1621*** Cristopher Perbandt

Motto: If faut acquerir en ieunesse,

Dont on puisse vivre en vieillesse.

Crest of crossed shovels and a seahorse.

1619: **** Zuo Hraban Giese, zuo Zurich 16th Septembris

152/153 Blank Professional miniature, a lady in a wide black dress with white hat, ruff, and scarf. (No text)
154/155 Motto unclear, dedication unclear, 2. Maio 1621. Motto unclear, dedication unclear, 4. octobris 1619, crest of three fish (pike?), surmounted by another pike.
156/157 Motto: In via virtuti nulla est vias.

haec paucula nobilis possessori scripsi in amicitiae signum Anno 1620, 20 January Salmury(?) Suffridus a Rispens?

Crest: Double-headed eagle, no text.
158/159 Blank Professional miniature, LE CHEVALIER QUE LE ROY D'ESPAGNE DOIT AU PAPE TOUS LE** EST CET POUR LA ROYAUME DE NAPEL, a white horse, with a rich saddle and blanket, topped by a papal insignia, looks sideways directly at the viewer, while a well-dressed man leads him on.
160/161 Professional miniature, apparently a continuation of the procession on 144-5 the same cobbled street, a man in the King of England's livery carries a knight's helmet, another man all in black carries the rose and lion banner of the king.

With a later inscription, not all read, ... Raban Giesen ... in london anno 1621 Jacob ... (damaged in the corner)

Michael Barrillidus consulari ordinis. Genevae scribebat anno . salutis 1619.

Arms, Yellow five-pointed star on red below, blue and white vertical stripes above.

Motto, etiam si me occideris in te sperabo domine.

162/163 Blank 1620. Motto: Plutost mourir que perdre lhonnoeur.

Arms: Three black diamonds dexter, three black stripes sinister, all on red base.

One line unread, then: in Bourdau le 8 May Sigfridt von Zilurs(?)

164/165 Professional miniature, two men all dressed in black, a meeting between Galenus Pergamenus and Aureolus Phillipus ... Paracelsus at ****, further captions in Latin under each figure, probably their own mottoes or doctrine, the Paracelsus figure carries a staff with the word AZOT on the handle in gold. Saepe meliosi fortuna / locum dedit iniuria. Spero.

nobilissimo viro Domino Rabano Gisio prepotui affect(us) monumentum posuit basilicam 3rd Calends Octobris 1618 Paulus Croquerus med. D. (NB 1618 may be a slip for 19, XVIII, but 19 more usually written as XIX, or else this would be the oldest inscription in the book.)

166/167 A crest with no identification, a lone leaping wolf in a night sky. Mottos, dedication and signature not fully deciphered, dated 18 March (Marti) Anno 1619.
168/169 Miniature, perhaps in a different style from all others, a woman standing in open countryside holding a fan, in a dress with floral pattern over white, with a ruff and feather in her hair.

Later text dated 28 July 1620.

Motto: Generosa sic sunt perfora, turpia odio habent honesta, sibi gloriosa existimant.

Crest: A blue crowned lion between three gold crosses, with a blue-gold stag's head above.

Dedication: George Breutten, 22nd April 1620.

170/171 Professional miniature, a jousting horseman, his lance with a guard on the point, on a dappled white horse with red decorative tassels, the man in white and red apparel.

Later text: Amicus optimus, vitae possessio.

Professional miniature, perhaps designed to fit with the preceding, a knight in armour with raised sword and shield stands within a hollow stone pillar up to the top of his thighs.

Later text: 18th March 1619.

172/173 Motto: Nil ego Praestulerim jucundo sanus amico (Horaz).

Crest: Key and arrow against blue, with three gold stars.

Extensive Latin text in very small script, signed by:

Sebastian Schmidt, Geneva, 10. SBR (September) 1619.

Professional miniature, Two women conversing in an open space, one in a blue coat and a white-and-pink dress underneath, holding a rosary(?), the other in a black jacket over a red skirt, with a rosary attached at her waist, both gesturing and conversing.

Later text, probably by the same writer as the facing text.

174/175 Double-page miniature, LE BAPTESME DE GENEVE, a cobbled street, seven men on the left and seven women on the right, all but one in black, one man in white, one other man in black carries a large red and pink squared blanket. see facing page.
176/177 Il faut endurer qui veut durer / En dieu mon esperence.

(lower down) (one and 1/2 lines unread, then) en Bourdeaux *** 7 Mai l'an 1620(?) Henning Lubbrect(?).

--- (Jumps from 176 to 179, traces of a page in gap).
178/179 --- Motto: Sensa concordia ne la citta sara ben gouernata ne la casa ben habitata.

Silver cross within a red shield within a gold ground above, red and blue stripes below, the crest is a naked, headless and legless but crowned figure.

nobilissimo ac politissimo Dominus Rabano Giese amico ... Genevae 1619 G. a Thill.

180/181 Motto: Tandem bona causa triumphat.

22 March (Marti) Anno 1620, signed at the side Christopham Jacobus Muffel.

Quem DEUS diligit per aequa, per fluxus & refluxus perperriet ad suum portum. J. Lips(ius).

shield and crest, a golden lion with a fish-tail?

dedication Geneva 1619 Jeremias imfloss Junior.

182/183 Professional miniature, a winged baby wearing only a sash and holding an arrow sits on the back of a lion, a rock in the background.

Later text

Motto: Non est minere, sed studere vita.

Clarissime et nobilisimus vero D(octor) Rabano Giesio Pruteno in perpetuum mea erga Germanos omnes voluntatis testimonium. Hac scribebam Anthimus Faber & C. Sebastianus in supremo sabandia senator Prases Primanius Camberij et Cal Novemb. 1619.

184/185 Motto: Chi femina Virtu, raccoglie fami.

7 August 1620 ****** ****** (name unclear) Boruss. (=Prussian)

Professional miniature, LA FACON DE PASSER LES MONTAGNE AVEC LES DAMES EN ITALIE, shows a black horse with a gentleman and lady sitting suspended on each side of a horse in a frame of wood with a cloth covering both of them like a tent with a groove along the centre, one on each side but able to converse, the horse led by a man in a red top and blue trousers.
186/187 Professional miniature, a man in a red cloak and black hat on carpet spread over a dappled horse.

Lors que nous pensons estre plus miserable / Cest alorsbquen le Seigneur nous est plus favourable.

Later text at the bottom of the page contains the date 1621.

Motto: Vivere in tota vita descendum est et quod magu fortasse miraberis tota vita siscendum est mori. Seneca. J'endure pour parvenir.

Arms, three set of black horns(?) on a golden shield.

An almost illegible dedication, dated 1619

188/189 MOTTO: Recto faciendo neminem timeas etc.

Geneve Jacobus Finckig Hafnia-Dan(us?) 15th October 1619

Professional miniature, a woman sits working yarn in a basket carried on the back of a tonsured monk.

Later text: ends Geneva, 3rd Feb.?, Anno 1619.

190/191 Professional miniature, a woman in black and red with a gold chain around her waist looks to her right.

No text.

Dedication not easily readable, perhaps Mark Schhauring Dan(u)s 22 May 1619.
192/193 MOTTO: Animus vereri qui scit, scit tuto aggredi ...

Arms of a black cross atop a white conical hill, the same crest above.

Testandi cullus ergo apposuit Parisiis 1620. Johannes Richterus Jaharlowski de Sudier.

MOTTO: Tout vient a poinct a qui peult attendre.

ARMS three black diamonds over a rose?

Jucundae recordatio-nos ergo Nobilisio domino Profesori, haec pauca reliquit Aurelius, ad ******** 12 November Anno 1619 Maximius Hanns Oleman Brunsvigius Saxo.

194/195 Motto: bene dixit bene qui latuit / In corde columbino sit oculus serpentinus

Genere virtute atque doctrina conspicuo viro domino Rhabano Giesio amico suo colendo, paucula haec in iucundam sui recordationem testandique officii ** amoris ergo ** ** ** apposuit Geneva 13 Febr Anno 1619 Johan Philip Burckhardt Heidelbergensis

A woman in a plain white dress with a red corset and blue apron works yarn from a stick.

No text.

196/197 Professional miniature, a gentleman in green with a black hat on a brown horse approaches a head on a pedestal which appears to have been pierced by a large arrow.

no text.

Motto: mal si contrasta quel c'ordina il cielo

Nobilitate, virtuteque excellentisimo *** *** in perpetui obsequii *** monium adscripsit haec Geneva 14 Febr. 1619 Joh. Ludovicus Motzenbacker

198/199 Professional miniature, a young man wearing only a nightshirt stands warming his buttocks in front of an open fire.

Later text: non si male nunc, et nunc sic erit. Below: A dedication to Giese is dated at Greenwich: reliquit paucula haec Grenwich 7. Sep. 1620, Paul L(?)ingelsheim.

Professional miniature, KRIEGEN ODER WIEGEN, = make war or rock the cradle, a knight in full armour stands with a long spear over shoulder while rocking a cradle with his foot.

Nobilissimo ac praestanti** Domino Rabano Giisio, paucula haec reliquit Geneve Petrus de Haars(?)

200/201 Non seulement *** la bonne foy/ mais aussi sagement et par discretion

Shield: a rampant dog with a goose in its mouth.

Nobillisime itaque ornatis domino Rabano Giesio ** ** ** paucula haec exarabat Tolosa19 Juny 1620 Polybius Sobelius


Professional miniature, a man in a floor-length red gown with black trimmings and with a black hat is gesticulating towards us.

No text.

202/203 Professional miniature, over two pages, five ladies in a variety of dresses, one perhaps a queen with a large crown, the others ladies-in-waiting or members of a procession. Later text across double page: Nobilisimo Viro domino Rabano Gisyo in sempiternam ***** XRISOGONIOS 1618 Joannes Mittenij Cassell *****
204/205 Professional miniature, a dog begging, with a collar, named PICHON, touching but from a modern perspective the legs are too human-looking

Later text Geneva 22 Marti Anno 1619 Johannes Wibi Danus.

Professional miniature, a lady in a white dress with red scarf, intricate patterns worked into cloth.

No text.

206/207 Maximum hoc regni / Quod **** domini cogitur populus sui / Quam fesse, tam laudare. Seneca

Brevilus hisce testor a morem meum in Nobilis, et florentisssum dominum Rhabanum Giessen Anno domini 1621 Lugdunum Bat, Daniel Hein.


Motto: Invia virtute nulla e via

ARMS, above a kingfisher, below diagonal black and silver stripes.

Viro vetuste et genere nobilisimo Domino Rhabano Giese **** *** semper honorando ludentisime adscripsit Geneve 8 Aprili Anno 1619 Joannes Christianus Wibe Dan(us)

208/209 MOTTO: Amicus certus in re in certa cernit.


Genere et virtute Nobilisimo viro Domino Rabano Giese amico et ****** meo colendo in gratissima conversationis et verae amicitie signum reliquit saec. geneve 21 Maii, 1619, Petrus Wibe Danus

Professional miniature, lady in a gold brocade dress with a fan.

No text.

210/211 Greek motto

En tibi, Rabanus Gisi, nobilissime, sinceri erga Te affectus testem, manum aeternum Cui? / Hic Fossii Dam / Lutet Paris VII Idus Sextileis 1620

Professional miniature, man all in black flowing robes with hat and holding glove.

Later text: Viro nobillisimo ac **** -simo Domino Rabano Giesi, ... 12 April Anno 1619 Geneva

212/213 Motto: Rien ou bien.

Zum *** *** *** Dess Inn Marsilien 19. 1620 Martin Zobril(?) *** ***

Professional miniature, a man walking a dog, side view, the dog running, the man striding with a stick.

No text.

214/215 Large coat of arms only with motto: Flores virtute parti, arms quartered, three gold fleur-de-lys on blue ground and diagonal blue and gold stripes, above an armoured glove clutching a fleu-de-lys. Motto: Nil dulcis quam *** *** temporis ***

*** *** *** Oratio ad Christianissimum Gallio et *** *** Anno 1618(?) *** ***

216/217 Motto: Pulchrum est, etiamsi quis summa desperet, in secundis tertiisque consistere.

Nobilissimo ac praestantissimo Domino possessori, hisce memoriam sui consecrabat. Lugd. Bat. Anno 1621 2 May Henricus Hein.

Arms of three white roses on a red shield, below these is a hasty undeciphered text.
218/219 Motto: Fortinam reverenter habe.

Below: Paucula haec Nobilis ac praestantissimo viro domino Rhabano Gizio in perpetuae amicitie signum scripsi Lugd. Bat. Anno 1621, 2 May. Joannes Stein, Borussii (Prussian)

Undeciphered motto

Arms of a black diving bird with a fish in its mouth on an orange ground.

Haec paucula haec Nobilisimo necnon Rhabano Gizio in perpetue memorie *** Geneve *** 4 Aprilis ibique Christopherus Schad?

220/221 Motto: non Val Virtu, a chi fortuna incontra.

Arms: unclear, perhaps silver fleur-de-lys and red roses over a silver and red ground?

... 19 July 1620 Hans *** von ***

Motto: Tout ouyr tout veoir et rien dire / merite en tout temps qu'on l'admire.

Crest a mermaid with two tails, gold crown and necklace.

German text, unclear, but Lyon dem 19 Junii 1620.

222/223 Professional miniature, double page, a cobbled street, six pikemen precede a bare-footed man in a white robe reaching almost to the ground, behind follow two riders with muskets and two more pikemen. text: LAMENDE HONOURABLE A LA FACON DE GENEVE
224/225 Arms only: quartered, two compartments of a pair of two blue birds on silver and two of a gold fleur-de-lys on black, crest also a fleur-de-lys. No text. Nihil est tam altam quo unitus non possit exiti haec paucula in perpetuum amicitiae (GREEK WORD UNDECIPHERED) a Rabano Gisio Adsumpsit. Philipus *** *** de ***


226/227 Motto: Considerate agere, pluris est quam cogitare prudenter

Nobilissimo politisimo domino rhabano giesio, singularis amicitiae et ad*** causa haec relinquebat Lugd. Bat. 2 Maij anno 1621 Georgius Hein

Professional miniature, A trumpeter with a trumpet bearing a red flag precedes a semi-naked man tied onto a donkey, with a set of horns put onto his head: his bare-breasted wife beats him while both are beaten by another man. Text: LE CHATIMENT D'UN CORNARD, ET DE SA FAMME A PADOVE
228/229 Motto: Vita brevis, gloriae cursus sempiternus

nobilissime et eximio Viro, domino Rhabano Giesio, faufori et amico suo singulare affectus studia colendo in amicam sui recordationem apponebat Lugdunum-Bat(avia) 2 Maii 1621 Franciscus Gordonius Scoto-Britannus

Professional miniature, three blond women, naked under black cloaks, milk a cow tethered to a tree, whose calf looks on.

No text.

230/231 Qui capit, ille animum paragrino obdural in orbem / Coralium extra undas sic abit in lapidum. // Pour mourir bien hauraux / A vivre faut apprendre / Pour vivra bianhauraux / A mourir faut entendre.

Nobilis(imo) Domino Rhabano Giesi, viro doctissimo, politisimo, amico meo plurimum honorando, commonsali suarisimo, dextram meam, sincori amoris fustam, et hominem qui suo clamare *** nobis *** *** *** jucunda *** *** racordationis indicium, L.M.Q. reliqui Generae sexta die mensis Septembris anni Christianorum 1619 liborius de Line Bremensis

Professional miniature, a well-dressed man in yellow leggings, with a purple cloak and black hat, holding a decorated crook.

Caption du Niton, other text apparently added later: or le fruit, le bon vin blan, a la causa de la pira a due parpellule E let bon.

232/233 Professional miniature, a man wearing only a short garment in black-white check and a hat spinning wool from a pole.

Later text. Damnum appelandum est, cum mala fama lucrum.

Different hand: Text about Raban Giese, then: 19. Aug. 1620 ***** von ***** Boruss?

Motto: Chi femine raccoglie fama.

Very unclear German language inscription dated 1620 perhaps located in London?

234/235 Professional miniature: A rampant bull with a snake curled around its horns, no background. Motto: Pietas ad omnia utilis.

Il n'ya homme qui ne durer sans endurer

Et n'y a homme qui po durer Vuille endurer.

Nobili virs Domino Raabano Gizio, saec in perpetuam memoriam extravit. Bas Rauricorum 10 *** 1619 Johannes Rudolphus Josep?

236/237 Professional miniature, fills entire page, in front of a wall of stone slabs cemented together three men are standing each with one foot in a single bucket, apparently swearing an oath to each other. Different style from all other illustrations. No text. Motto: In silentio et spe fortitudo nostra.

Genius, Virtutis, et Literarum Splendore inprimis Conspicuo *** Rabano Giesio ... inscribam Basilia 11/21 *** 1618. Christophorus Hennig MD.

238/239 Motto: Qui ne veut les debtes d'autruy ne doit jamais parler de luy.

**** Rhabano Giesi *** Anno 1621 2. Maii Michael Gibert ***

Motto: Nihil furore amoris vehementius?

Nobilissimo & Politissimo Rhabano Giesy amico meo *** *** calends Jan 1619 Jacobus Fitz*** ???

240/241 Professional miniature, two women, both with hats, ruffs, and jackets over floor-length gowns with white front panels bordered by coloured skirts, one blue, one red. No text. Five lines in German, very unclear, motto and dedication?

13 Junij 1618(?)

242/243 Professional miniature, a woman, perhaps in widow's weeds, looks down at a cat jumping up at her. Papinian: Facta, quae laedunt pretatem, existimtionem, verecundam nostram, quaequam contra bonos mores sunt, nos facere non posse, omnium et credendum.

Nobilissimo D(omino): possessori, **** et amico **** colendo hanc suam *** in observatior signum apposuit, Genevae 23 die Aprilis 1619, Bernhardus Forchenbeck.

244/245 Motto: Nella (an Italian saying is given only by the initial letter of each word)

Quomod fabula, sic et vita, non quam diu, sed quam bene acta sit, refert. Seneca.

Nobillissimo ac prostantissimo juveni viro, Domino Rabano Giesii Dantiscano, benevolentiae beaticandae gratia *** paucula Haga Comitis, anno Christiana 1621, April. 28 adscripsit Iohannes ******** I.U.D. et Comitis Sentseimesis Consiliam.

Motto: Spes ancora anima.

Arms of a silver lion rampant on black, surrounded by four detached lion-claws(?).

Viro nobillissimo ac Doctissimo Domino Rhabano Giesy amico suo plurimum colendo, amoris testificandi & perpetuae recondationis ergo LML *** *** adscripsit Jac: Dorville

Date: 17. Augusti MDCXIX (1619)

246/247 Neque omma, neque quovis tempore; neque omnibus

 etc (Ulpian)

Hisce / nobilisimus et humansicus Vir Dr. Rabano Gisio patricio Dantisci ... Lugd. Bat. 11 Maii MDCXXI Jacoby Strening(?)

Motto: Cuius in fidem in pecunia perspexeris, verere ei verba credere.

Shield of one side an Austrian black eagle, the other side a sword with three acorns.

Nobilitate doctrina & virtute excellentisimo viro D. Rhabano Giesio hoc pauca poneban salmurii 4 Ides April 16** / Johannes Henricus

248/249 Professional miniature, an ostrich stands on a landscape of open rough ground.

Text: ... Universitet Oxenford die 19 Aug. anno 1620 Joachim Franciscus ex Livonis Curlandus.

Professional miniature, a crowned king in full armour with an ermine-lined red cloak and orbed crown stands holding an open book and a sword.

Texts: Imperatorem, Reges, Principes, etc.(?) non solum armis decoratos, sed etiam Legibus oportet esse armartos. Nam. La force sans sagesse se destruict de soy meme. Igitur et arte et marte.

nobilitate generis, Doctrina et Virtute Florentibus domine Rhabano Giesio Conferranco et amico suo amato-amando ex colendo, affectus sui sincerrimi MUNEBUNON Socc. L.M. inferebat Hermannus Gedering, Dantiscanus 15. Sept Anno 1619

250/251 Motto: Amor vincit omnia. Text: Hoc chartaceum XXonimentum Nobilisio et PraestantisX juveni D(omino) Rabano Gisio Amico collonisso moris et amo. His ergo posuit Hagae comitis ... M.D.XXI (1621) Johannes Cirenborgius. Professional miniature, a woman carrying a baby on her back in a sling which is the continuation of a tartan-like skirt she is wearing.

A Latin inscription to Giese dated Londini 2 September 1620.

252/253 Professional miniature, two flying putti linked back to back by a red sash, one blowing a trumpet, the other holding a working incense burner. No text. Motto: Gloria virtutis premium.

A dedication to Domino Rabano Gisio Amico ... Geneva Anno 1619 ... Februarii ... johan Thomae Mariae Borusso (Prussian).

254/255 Professional miniature, a woman in a dress of orange and brown parts, carrying a basket and balancing a pot on her head. Motto: Maximum est ex se capisce.

Genere, virtute, omnigena eruditione polissimo viro domino Rabano Gesio Amico amato-amando & colendo, memoria gratitudinis & officy ergo L.M.E. apposuit Geneva die 11 Febr. Anno 1619 Hennig Horn Elbinga-Bonets.

256/257 Professional miniature, a man in a green jacket and leggings wearing a brimmed hat and carrying a frog-catching pole with a frog transfixed on the spike. Chrysostomus (gives a Greek quotation)

Nobilisimo domino Rabano Gisio amico (....) 1619 Genevae Severinus Groenbeccius Danus

258/259 Professional miniature: A man in contemporary fashionable clothes riding a giant lobster on land like a horse. Motto: Lucerna pedibus meis verbum tuum.

Nobilisimi Domino Rabano Gisio in sempiternam memoriam **** Matt(heus) ****** (no date)





Motto: Spes mea Christus.

Amicitia memoriae quam **** Nobilissimo ****** Rabano Gisio **** May 20 1621 ***** ***** Christopherus Beham.

262/263 Motto: Tout par amour rien par force

A shield showing helmets, one with gold above, silver design on black beneath, with two helmets above, one with horns, the other with eagle claws and feathers.

German text not deciphered.

Motto: esperance avec patience.

Nantes ce 28 d'Avril l'an 1620.

Por certiorer monsieur Raban Giese de l'amitie et bienveillance, que ie luy ay uoue i'ay fait ce petit trait de plume. Jacques Jan Hoff

264/265 Motto: Plus estre que paraistre.

Heraldic shield shows a lamb holding a golden crucifix with flag, crest above is the same.

Monsieur l'amitie que in vous ay vouee me donne tous les desirs du monde de porter dignement le nom de vostre affectione serviture, A Geneve le 6 octobre 1619 Estienne Pascal

Full-page miniature in a different style to all others, within a black, red and yellow frame, six figures between cliffs and a tree look towards a wall of flame rising from a river.
266/267 Pumfries(?) read as Dumfries H. Southampton
268/269 Montgomery Doncaster virtus mille scuta
270/271 Scrawled signature, perhaps Hieronimus or Thoeromus. Motto: Virtus post funera difat(?)

Nobilissimo iuxta ac doctissimo Viro, D(omi)n(o) Rabano Gisio (etc) Brandanus Eggebrecht Rupellae 1620 3. May

272/273 Pour mourir bien-heureux a vivre / fault apprendre/ Pour vivre bien-heureux a mourir / fault entendre / -- / Jucunde recordationis et debitae observantive causa paucula nhaec adscribat Nobiloies. Domino possessori Lugduni 13. die Junij Anno 1620. Joh(ann) Georgius Hermannus A. Professional miniature, A woman holding an umbrella, red upper garment, white dress with embroidered flower pattern beneath.
274/275 Virtutis sans actio (then a scrawled signature) Tibullus / sed credula vitam / Spes ****** melius oras fore semper ait / fortune me formente / Esperance me contente / ... reliquit Genevis 10. Junii A(nno) 1619 Emanuel Fendius Lavingano S****
276/277 Four lines of Latin verse, then In aeternam sui memoriam haec *** vides nfautor, apposuit, salmus* 25 d. martis a(nno) 20 (i.e.1620), then Hieronymus Holtzmannus Kitlinga Francus Miniature is a different style and palette than most others, a putti resting one leg on a skull and the other foot on green grass, blows bubbles with a pipe through liquid in a shell, clouds above. No text.
278/279 Ut *** divina voluntas / ******, then: Otho **** / 16.Oxonii 20 / D 20 Aug. Motto: spirans, spero: Sperans est timeo. / **** in gratiam nobilissimi viri Domini Rabani Giesij posuit: F. Ranchinus cancellarius Universitatis medi. montpeliensis die 20 in maij, anno 1620
280 Imperator leo ad LioC de his q-(uibus) indign. / Si fiduciam, innocentiae geris adversus omnem calumniam, MXAM habes securataten / Leiden 2 May Anno 1621 Nicolas Posl Borus. ---



Professional miniatures ( a key, not full descriptions) Page
Le Roy de France 69
Prince and devil 73
Roy d’Angleterre 83
Chevalier de la Iartiere 87
Chevalier de sainct Estienne 93
Vn commandeur d’Allemagne 95
Damoiselle francaise en chambre 99
(A woman in a red skirt) 101
(A woman in black) 107
Vne chambriere  / Vne damme / Vne fille d’heydelb 109
(A woman in black and orange) 111
(A woman in black and green) 116
Vne espouse de Zurich 120
(A woman in black with very large collar) 129
Die dicke Seilerin zu strassburg 139
Le Roy D’Angleterre (double page) 148-9
(Girl and boy in a field) 150
(Woman all in black with white ribbons) 153
Le cheval que le roy d’Espagne doit au Pape - pour le Royaume de Neapel 159
(Continuation of 148-9) 160
Galenus Pergamenus meets Paracelsus 164
(A woman in a floral dress) 168
(A knight jousts against a knight in the base of a stone pillar) 170-71
(a woman in black and a woman in blue talking) 173
La Bapteme de Geneve 174-75
(A winged baby on the back of a lion) 182
(A device to sit tandem on a horse) 184
(A horseman with a very long horse-blanket) 186
(A woman carried in a basket by a very tall monk) 188
(A woman in black over a red dress) 189
(A woman drawing woollen thread) 195
(A rider has thrown a spear through a head mounted on a pillar?) 196
(A young man warms his buttocks by a fire) 198
KRIEGEN ODER WIEGEN (A knight in full armour rocks a cradle with his foot) 199
(Old man in a red coat with black edgings) 201
(Crowned Queen followed by four other women) 202-3
(Small dog begging for scraps?) 204
(Woman all in white with red scarf) 205
(Woman in a gold-brocade dress) 209
(Man all in black holding a leather glove) 211
(Man out walking with dog) 213
(Three women milking a cow in the open field) 229
(A man drawing out thread from a ball or raw wool) 232
(A bull with a snake in its horns) 234
(A full-page picture of three men taking an oath with their feet in a bucket?) 236
(Two women, one in red, one in blue) 240
(A woman -- in mourning? -- is looking down at a cat) 242
(An ostrich) 248
(A king in full armour with sword and book) 249
(A woman with one garment, perhaps actually a blanket, carries her child on her back, the child sucks at her breast over her shoulder) 251
(Two putti are tied back-to-back) 252
(A woman balances a pot on her head) 254
(A man carries a long instrument for catching frogs?) 256
(A man rides a giant lobster) 258
(A full page miniature of men seeing a river of fire) 265
(A woman in red holds up a small umbrella) 273
(A putti sits on a dry skull and blows bubbles from a pipe) 277




Database of the contents


This table shows the basic data about the entries, and can be used on a computer to switch between different groupings or rankings by location, language, nationality, or date of addition, while the material is here presented by page order. The code (PRO) in the second column indicates that these pages have professional miniatures, many though not all with French titles or captions, the precise nature of these illustrations is described in the previous table. Later additions to these illustrated pages are given a separate entry. Completely blank pages are not included.


Location Language Nation Year Month Day Page
--- German --- --- --- --- 0
London Latin English 1620 --- --- 2
London Latin English 1620 --- --- 3
? Latin --- 1618 --- --- 6
? Latin --- 1618 --- --- 7
London F - E English 1620 --- --- 8
--- Latin Dutch --- --- --- 9
London English English 1620 --- --- 11
London Lat English English 1620 --- --- 13
Lyon? --- ? 1619? --- --- 16
Lyon? Greek Lat ? 1619? --- --- 17
London French English 1620 --- --- 19
Middelsburg English English 1621 04 23 021
Antwerp Latin --- 1621 04 02 23
London? --- --- 1620? --- --- 25
--- Latin --- 1620 09 06 57
Louvain Greek Lat --- 1621 05 16 59
Brussels Latin --- 1621 04 18 61
London Latin German 1621 01 25 62
--- English English? 00 00 00 63
Lyon French Ger German 1619 10 30 65
London L-G-F German 1620 09 06 067
--- (PRO) 69
Paris Lat Ger German 1620 08 07 071
--- (PRO) 73
--- (PRO) 75
--- Latin Fre German 1619 -- -- 77
Andover Fre Latin German 1619 11 00 078
Lyon Fre Latin German 0000 08 30 079
--- Fre Latin ??? 1620 03 01 081
Paris Fre Latin German 1620 07 07 082
--- (PRO) --- --- --- --- 083
Bourges French German 1619 11 06 085
Bourges French German 1619 11 06 086
(PRO) 087
Bourges French German 1619 11 08 088
??? Fre Germ German 1619 05 18 089
Paris L-G-F Danus 1620 08 07 091
Paris L-G-F Danus 1620 08 08 092
(PRO) 093
(PRO) 095
Paris L-G-F German 1620 08 07 096
Chambri? Fre Ger German 1619 10 14 097
Paris G-F 1620 07 30 098
--- German


German --- --- --- 099
Paris L-G-F Danus 1620 08 05 100
(PRO) 101
Geneva L-G-F German 1619 07 00 103
??? French French --- --- --- 104
Schonaich Lat French ??? 1619 09 24 105
Geneva L-G-F Danus 1619 04 10 106
Geneva L-G-F Danus 1619 05 30 107
??? Lat (Danus) 1619 07 07 108
(PRO) 109
Lyon Lat ??? 1621 05 02 110
(PRO) 111
Lyon Fre Ger German 1621 04 30 112
Geneva L-G-F German 1619 05 27 113
Lyon German 1619 10 30 114
Geneva Lat Ger German 1619 09 21 115
(PRO) 116
Lat Ger German 1619 02 07 117
Geneva L-G-F German 1619 03 10 118
--- Latin ??? --- --- --- 119
(PRO) 120
Geneva Fre Ger German 1619 03 10 121
--- Fre Ger German --- --- --- 122
--- Fre Ger German 1619 05 13 123
Bourges Lat Fre --- 1619 11 09 124
--- French --- 1619 05 27 125
Rochelle Fre Ger German 1620 05 03 126
Geneva Lat Ger German 1619 05 23 127
(PRO) 129
Neoporti in Flandria Lat 1621 04 05 130
Geneva L-G-F German 1619 06 09 131
Geneva L-G-F ??? 1619 06 23 134
??? Lat Italian ??? --- --- --- 135
Geneva Lat Ger ??? 1619 09 06 137
Geneva Latin 1619 06 25 138
(PRO) German text 139
Geneva L-G-F French? 1619 01 16 141
Ostende Fre Dutch Dutch 1621 04 02 142
Geneva L-G-F German 1619 07 22 143
Brussels Lat Fre ??? 1619 09 15 144
Geneva Lat Fre 1619 09 18 145
London Lat Fre 1621 --- --- 146
??? Lat Fre German 1619 --- --- 147
--- (PRO) 148
--- (PRO) 149
Amsterdam Lat Ital --- 1619 00 00 150
Geneva Ger Fre German 1619 09 16 151
--- (PRO) 153
Lerch? Fre 1621 05 02 154
Geneva Ger German 1619 10 04 155
Salmurii Lat 1620 00 00 156
Crest for 156 No text 157
--- (PRO) 159
With later added text below (PRO) 00 00 160
London Lat German 1621 00 00 160
Geneva Latin 1619 00 00 161
Bourdau?? Fre Ger German 1620 05 08 163
(PRO) 164
Basel Latin 1618 10 00 165
With next (CREST) 166
Geneva Lat Ger German 1620 03 18 167
With later added text below (PRO) 168
Paris? Ger German 1620 07 28 168
Geneva L-G-F 1620 04 22 169
Salmuri Lat German 1620 04 22 170
With later added text below (PRO)
Geneva? Lat German 1619 03 18 171
Geneva Lat German 1619 10 10 172
With extra text from page before (PRO) 173
(PRO) 2-page ill. 174
(PRO) 175
Bourdeaux Lat Fre German 1620 05 07 176
Leaf lacking between 176 & 179
Geneva Italian Lat German 1619 00 00 179
Geneva? Latin German 1620 03 22 180
Geneva Lat Fre German 1619 10 05 181
With added text below (PRO) 182
Geneva Fre Lat German 1619 04 09 182
Geneva Lat German 1619 11 09 183
Geneva Ital Lat Boruss 1620 08 07 184
(PRO) 185
(PRO) 186
Lund? Fre Ger German 1621 03 06 186
Andegavi?? Lat Fre 1619 07 12 187
Geneva Lat Ger Danus 1619 10 15 188
(PRO) 189
Geneva Fre Lat


1619 02 03 189
(PRO) 190
Anerlin? Fre Lat Danus 1619 05 22 191
Perisois Lat German w Polish 2nd name 1620 00 00 192
Brunsvicus Fre Lat Saxo 1619 11 12 193
Geneva Latin German 1619 02 13 194
(PRO) 195
(PRO) 196
Geneva Ital Lat German 1619 02 14 197
Grenwich Ital/Lat German 1620 09 07 198
(PRO) 199
Geneva Ital Lat German 1619 02 11 199
Tolosa Fre Lat German 1620 06 19 200
(PRO) German 201
(PRO) 202
Cassell? Lat Ger German 202
(PRO) 203
Cassell? Lat Ger 1618 10 02 203
(PRO) 204
Geneva Lat Ger Danus 1619 03 22 204
(PRO) 205
Lyon Latin German 1621 00 00 206
Geneva Latin Danus 1619 04 08 207
Geneva Latin Danus 1619 05 02 208
(PRO) 209
Paris Grk Latin Danus? 1620 00 00 210
(PRO) 211
Geneva Latin Unclear 1619 04 12 211
Marsilien Fre Ger German 1620 212
(PRO) 213
? Latin Shield of following page 214
**** Latin Unclear 1618 10 19 215
Lyon Latin Hein 1621 05 02 216
Lyon as before as before 1621 05 02 217
Lyon Latin Borrus 1621 05 02 218
Geneva Latin German? 1621? 04 04 219
??? unclear Latin Ital German 1620 07 19 220
Lyon Fre Ger German 1620 06 19 221
(PRO) 222-3
Shield facing 225 - - --- --- --- 224
sine loc Latin & Greek German? --- --- --- 225
Lyon Latin German 1621 05 02 226
(PRO) 227
Lyon L Scoto-Brit 1621 05 02 228
(PRO) 229
Not stated Lat Fre German from Bremen 1619 09 06 230
(PRO) 231
(PRO) 232
Oxenford? Latin German? 1620 08 19 232
London Ital Lat 1620 09 16 233
(PRO) 234
Bas--- Lat Fre German 1619 10 10 235
(PRO) 236
Bas--- Latin German? 1618 11 21 237
Unclear Ger Fre German 1621? 05 02 238
??? Latin ??? 1619 01 Calends 239
(PRO) 240
Unclear Ger German 1618 06 13 241
(PRO) 242
Geneva Latin German 1619 04 23 243
Bentheim? Latin German 1621 04 28 244
not stated Latin French? 1619 08 17 245
Lyon Latin German? 1621 05 11 246
not stated Latin German? 1619? 04 04 247
Oxford Latin ex Livonis Curlandus 1620 08 19 248
Geneva Latin Dantiscanus 1619 09 15 249
Hage Comitis? Latin German? 1621 --- --- 250
(PRO) 251
London Latin Unclear 1620 09 02 251
(PRO) 252
Geneva Latin Boruss 1619 02 --- 253
(PRO) 254
Geneva Latin German? 1619 02 11 255
(PRO) 256
Geneva L Danus 1619 04 08 257
(PRO) 258
Not stated Latin Dantiscanus Boruss --- --- --- 259
--- Latin --- --- --- --- 260
Bordugal Latin German 1621 05 07 261
--- Lat Fre --- 1620 04 03 262
Nantes French French 1620 04 28 263
Geneva French French 1619 10 06 264
(PRO) 265
London? English --- --- --- 266
London? English --- --- --- 267
London? English --- --- --- 268
London? Latin Eng --- --- --- 269
London? English? --- --- --- 270
Rupellae Latin German 1620 05 03 271
Lyon French German 1620 06 13 272
(PRO) 273
Unclear Latin --- --- --- 274
Geneva Latin Swiss-French 1619 06 10 275
Kittlinga Latin German 1620 03 25 276
(PRO) 277
Oxford Latin German 1620 08 20 278
Montpellier Latin French 1620 05 20 279
Leiden Latin Boruss 1621 05 02 280




Nationality Number of entries
German 88
Of which, Prussian (Boruss) 4
Of which, Dantiscano (Danziger) 2 (Giese and one other)
Of which, Saxo 1
Of which, Curland Livonis 1
Danish (Danus) 12
French speakers 6
Dutch-speaking Netherlanders 2
English 12 (plus any scholars?)


The entry for German includes all Prussian and Dantiscano persons, several of those self-designating as Danes may also be German speakers from the towns of Lubeck or Hamburg. French speakers may be from France, Switzerland or Belgium, however the majority of signatories using French write German texts which are in German handwriting while using French-style writing only for French or Latin texts, so these are German speakers for whom French language and script have both been learnt in education. It would seem that Italian or Spanish phrases are only used as additional flourishes, there are no clear native speakers of these languages.

Signatures of King James the sixth of Scotland and the first of England


The following consists of discussion of manuscripts or facsimiles of manuscripts in the British Library which contain signatures of King James VI and I from various times in his life.


RP 213 (part 2) Dated 1624. Like the others this is a scribal letter but with a much longer text attached to the signature in the king's hand, namely: Vostre tresaffecionn(E) frere, / cousin (et) ancien alli(E) Jaques (R). The J, A, and S and the form of the abbreviated (rex) are much more like our forms. In particular the (rex) is very similar, with a small dot within the final flourish. It may be that this is his form with more private or intimate friends or at a particular time of his life. (Ours is dated 1620) (NB this is actually produced by a precursor of a photocopy system, not an original)




RP 9863 Dated Newmarket 22 March 1622. Once again this is a scribal letter with an extended signature Vostre tresaffectionné frere (ET) cousin Jaques (REX).The J, S, and the form of the abbreviated (REX) are much more like ours but the A is a bit more rounded. The way in which the twirl on the final part of (R) is partly but not completely separated from the final point shows how our point-within-the-twirl has arisen. The form of the abbreviation for (ET) is very similar. The small initial stroke preceding the (U) of Jacobus/Jacques is similar. The initial upward stroke of J is very similar to ours.


Add MS 50825 (item 3) (from Norwich Castle Museum, item 445/76.94) Faded letter in ink now brown, below a signature which has remained black, i.e. these are probably by two different people, the main text a scribe, James R, the J and S have some similarity, the A is much more rounded that our rather sharp A but our version could reflect a night on the town. The R symbol which is a compression of 'Rex' is also better formed than ours but again this may reflect the context. Verso blank. (This is actually an early type of photocopy, not the original)


S 49609B One item , dated 1603 foolscap size, 28 lines recto, 16 lines verso, above text in same hand: James R. 'Signature' completely different, but it is above the text and may not be intended as a signature at all. Not fully deciphered, the main text appears to be an official document not likely to have been written by the king. This signature has a much larger and fuller lower loop on the J and a correspondingly shorter upward stroke beginning the approach to the J. The (Rex) symbol has much simpler forms than ours but has the isolated dot in the same place. . (This is actually an early type of photocopy)


Cotton Caligula C.IX Item 389 is a one-page, one-side letter which may be entirely in the hand of James, signed James (Rex) and dated June 1586 i.e. when he was King of Scotland only. The signature is a much less formal one than those found elsewhere and may be sign of a change between his youth and maturity or may simply be a style intended for personal letters, the J has much of the feel of the later J but on a smaller scale relative to the following letters, the S at the end of James is very small and somewhat below the line. The (Rex) symbol is also much more skeletal than in later or more formal documents.


(MS Addit) 12095, page 622 in some previous life, item 13 of this collection, letter of 19 lines, dated 1594, seems to be scribal with James only signing, as James, with the J and S like ours and with the A more angular at the bottom than in other documents, the (Rex) symbol has the fully separate swirl above and a dot between the upper and lower extensions. Comparison with item 10 (ex 654), dated September 1563, shows that James Stewart has a much less developed flourish on both parts of the J in his name and has different letter forms in nearly every case.



Hamilton and Buckingham


On one page in Giese’s book adjacent to the King’s signature we find two signatures with mottoes one above the other, Buckingham vray amy tresor inestimable and Hamilton je suis de la partie. The fact that both men sign with just "Buckingham" or "Hamilton" indicates that these are the Duke and Earl of these places who do not need to specify their first names or status. Buckingham and Hamilton were the king's two favourite ministers and were both involved in trying to mediate between the king and the extremist Calvinist party in Scotland. It is quite possible that they might have been present at a royal social gathering.


The relationship of Hamilton and Buckingham is brought out in this excerpt from a manuscript history of Hamilton’s son, who played important role in the later politics of the conflict between the King and Scottish Calvinist hardliners.


MS Sloane 1007 f.1r Memoirs of the Life and Actions of James Duke of Hamilton. of what happened from his fathers death till the yeare 1638. / James Marquis of Hamilton died att London, in March, 1625, and was succeeded in his honour and fortune by his eldest son and heir James afterwards created Duke of Hamilton, whom his father had brought with him to England some years before, and was then in the 18th year of his age, and sent to prosecute his studies att Oxford, from where he was called to see his father die, and came in time to receive his last advice and blessing. Thus died that great and illustrious person in the flower and vigour of his age, being then but 36 years old. // He was in great esteem, in both kingdoms, dear to the soveraign and the subjects; and it was certain no person had disputed with him the King's affection and confidence, the Duke of Buckingham only excepted, his secretary as commissioner for the king in the Parliament (of) 1621, as(?) much lessened his interest in Scotland, for the Five Articles of Perth(?) (Where the assembly of the church that settled them was held) commonly called the Five Articles, were generally so obnoxious, that carrying the settlement of these in Parliament drew much dislike from all that party, which was then called puritan. But his carriage in that parliament gained him as much trust and favour with the king, as our man had: the king created him Earl of Cambridge, a title that was never conferred on any, but such as were of the Royal blood.


This passage identifies Buckingham and Hamilton as rivals for the favour of both King and populace. This means that Giese met both the king and his two principal counsellors and administrators on the same evening, which is unproblematic if he did in fact meet the king. Would he have been introduced to the king through scientific/scholarly contacts, through his Hanseatic links, or through his Calvinist connection?


James Hamilton (1589-1625) was a Scottish nobleman and politician who came to England when his King, James VI of Scotland, also became James I of England. For his services to King James in Scotland and England he was created Earl of Cambridge in 1619, just a year or two before Giese came to England. He died suddenly of a fever in 1625. George Villiers (1592-1628) was a minor English nobleman who became a favourite and political ally of King James, he was made Earl of Buckingham in 1617 and Duke of Buckingham in 1623. The period in which he and Hamilton were seen as rivals ended when Hamilton died suddenly of a fever in 1625.


Other British entries in the Album


There are in total twelve unambiguously British signatures in the book, that of James VI and I, those of Hamilton and Buckingham, the king’s two chief ministers, and nine others, many which can be identified with persons in or around the government at that time. While the first three and Anthony Barker, ‘Doncaster’, and Edward Wray also entered mottoes, the remainder have only given signatures. This suggests that all these signatures were entered on a single occasion, as does the similarity in ink and pen between most of them. It has been possible to compare six signatures found here with the signatures found in official documents in the British Library, the signatures of King James, Buckingham, Hamilton, Southampton, Doncaster, and Montgomery. The latter five were all close collaborators of the king in internal or international politics (as was Dumfries, but signatures of Dumfries have not yet been found). The signatures found in our book are all very similar to the examples discovered from documents of similar dates to Giese’s visit to England.


The British individuals who signed in Giese’s Liber amicorum


Barker, Anthony. Was MP for Reading in 1620.


Carey, Ferdinando. In 1620 a Ferdinand Carey held an infantry command.


Arthme? Aston, of Curnall – The first part of this looks like a mistake for Arthur but using ‘Arthur’ as a related search term has not helped to find any connection with important persons of circa 1620.


Doncaster. Viscount Doncaster was an ambassador for King James in 1618-1622.


Hatton, Thomas. In 1620 a Thomas Hatton was elected or more realistically appointed MP for one of the two seats for Corfe Castle, which were in the gift of a member of his family.


Montgomery. A Lord Steward Montgomery participated in debates of the House of Lords in 1621, 1625 and 1628.


Dumfries. This item looks very much like Pumfries, but while there is no obvious link of a person of this name with King James, there is such a link with a person known to hail from Dumfries, John Murray (-1640), who  accompanied King James from Scotland to England, where he became the first Scotsman elected to the Westminster Parliament, he betrothed his son to Buckingham’s niece and was subsequently made a gentleman of the bedchamber. He was known as the master of Dumfries and probably continued to use this title after moving to England. See The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604-1629, this entry (John Murray) by Alan Davidson and Ben Coates, overall ed. Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010


Southampton. In 1626 the Lord Treasurer of England was the Earl of Southampton.


Wray, Edward, 1589-1658, was Groom of the Bedchamber in 1618-1622, at this time he was the ‘innermost friend’ of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. With Buckingham’s help he wooed the sister and heir of Lord Norreys, Elizabeth Norreys, but when Buckingham’s brother also declared an interest Wray eloped with his wife-to-be. He subsequently became a Member of Parliament in 1625. See The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604-1629, this entry by Alan Davidson and Rosemary Sgroi, overall ed. Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010. A sample signature has not yet been found.

The signatures in our book and in manuscripts of the British Museum

King James VI and I. There is a wide range of versions of the signature of the King, our signature appears to be consonant with the signatures produced at this time for official purposes.

Buckingham. The signature found here displays the peculiar loop which links the initial G (for George) with the rest of the word Buckingham. The MS Egerton 2592 contains an unusual additional text by Buckingham, at the bottom of a document written by a secretary he adds: eyther forgive me for not writing with myn one hand or else goe hange your selfe.

Hamilton. The unusual technique of connecting the two uprights of the letter H before beginning the crossbar which then links this H to the following letter is found in our example.

Southampton. Several signatures show the interlocked form of the two initials of the personal names of Lord Southampton, J-L.

Doncaster. Our signature shows Doncaster’s habit of writing most of the letters separately with only a few letters connected, and also the extravagant way in which he begins the initial D far to the left of the main body of the letter.

Examples of the writing of the other British signatories have not yet been discovered.
Ten comparable German-or-Dutch-origin Liber Amicorum in the British Library and the Bodleian Library


The following books all have points of comparison with our Liber amicorum, in format, use, or decoration, although some were probably begun as guest-books rather than books to carry on one’s travels.


BL MS Addit 17342 This Album Amicorum is in the same format as ours, a modern hand has numbered only those leaves which have inscriptions, namely 140, which is perhaps half of the leaves which make up the book. The inscriptions usually include a date, the range of which extends from 1619 to 1624, it thus overlaps with the use of our example which was in use from 1618 to 1622. There are only some 15 or 20 leaves on which the Armorials of the signatories are painted in full colours. A big contrast with our example is that the inscriptions are all in Latin, and the dedicatory words by the inscribers nearly all in Latin or German, there are only some ten or so equivalents to the French material which is ubiquitous in Raban Giese's Liber, with the exception of leaf 112v, which has both a painted figure of an upper-class woman and a French motto: Tout avec les temps. On the other hand there are a few isolated uses of Hebrew and Greek, two small inscriptions in Spanish and sixteen lines of a poem in Spanish (39v), and on folio 110 a signatory signs as Jacobus Nodius(?), Dantiscano-Boruss, the first part of which we have elsewhere found to indicate a citizen of Danzig (Borussia is an old spelling of Prussia), and inscribes two short lines in Polish or a local Slavonic dialect of the Danzig area. The majority of the signatories give Altorff or Altdorff as their current location, others give e.g. Cologne (Colonia), Limburg, Lubeck, Nuremberg, or Wittenberg as their place of residence or origin.


BL MS Addit 17486 This book contains inscriptions from the years 1601 to 1616 (not 1602-1613 as stated in an excerpt from an old catalogue). As with the previous entry only the leaves with text are numbered. The leaves are bound and used in portrait rather than landscape mode. Signatories are in or from places such as Dresden, Hamburg, Ingolstadt, Leipzig, Nuremberg, Rostock, Tubingen, Wismar, and Wittenberg, but in several places the entries are dated as being in the place specified, so this is a genuine traveller's book. As in our Liber, at least one signatory with a German name states himself to be Danus, e.g. f.140 Paulus Desiderius Foss, Danus. (another may be what we would today call Danish, i.e. a Danish speaker with a Danish name). Reflecting either the date or the nature of the institution where it was begun, this book contains more Greek and Italian than our book and on a rapid investigation no French.


MS Egerton 1178. The folios. 1-111 and 264-5 of this book are a Liber amicorum, in between an entire book of small religious prints has been bound in, the latter with no text. The Liber contains entries from 1554 to 1559, apparently in chronological order except for one dated 1556 at the beginning and two leaves bound in at the end dated 1557. Compared to our book and the two previously described Liber, this book contains a lot more Hebrew and Greek but otherwise is entirely in Latin, with no trace of German, French, or other Romance languages. It seems that this Liber amicorum was in the nature of a guestbook, all the entries are signed off as in Wittenberg while the names of other cities refer to the origin of the writer, not their current location. This would also explain why the entries are much longer than in our book, sometimes several pages of a particular text is written, which can be explained by the longer period of time available to the signatories and perhaps also the availability of their favourite texts in a library.


The following seven Albums from the Bodleian library are described in a less detailed manner. They include some Album Amicorum for travels, some which are guest books, and some of ambiguous use


MS Rawlinson B21 (c.1592) AA of Jan van der Deck. Two scenes (a warship and a luxurious coach), 15 women including one riding in a pallequin, 1 man pts (and one pasted in), two pages each showing both  man and a woman together, with many crests, perhaps half of these are pasted in complete and in different colours to the ones painted onto the leaves. A scene of two children playing pasted in. Most text is in Latin, also German and French. There is a similar mixture of rounded and angular scripts to our AA. 177 x 125mm, in portrait format.


MS Ashmole 1 A A of Ludolf von dem Werder, dated 1618-27, places include Lugdunum Batavia, Wittenberg, Giessen, with text in Latin, Greek, German, and Italian. Includes the women's names Elizabeth & Louise as making entries and signing. There is a strong contrast between angular secular scripts and rounded scholastic scripts reflecting the contrast of Latin and German, p.104v three lines in good Arabic, accompanied by texts in German by two Turkish visitors, Godts slave scha abas konninck van persien Ter erren van den eren festen Edelman Hobick diss geschreven: godts Slave Moussa beeck ambassador van den konninck van parsiem, An 1626, only about half of the pages are used, with half a dozen full-page pictures inserted on vellum pages, no borders. With a title page, a coat of arms between two figures of justice and a figure with an anchor. 16-Ludolff von dem Werder 18. 95 x 155mm, in landscape format.


MS Douce 28 Dated 1575-90. This Album amicorum contains a majority of pages with substantial selections of poetry. It is designated the Album amicorum of Emanuelis de Meteren Mercatoris Antuerpiani...1575. Perhaps every second gathering has a vellum outer leaf. Substantial texts suggest that this book functioned primarily as a guest book rather than a book to travel with. But pp 56-71 contain many entries dated London 1596, then Lugdunum Bataviae ff.73-75, Haag 77-78, London again 79-80a-80 (with good examples of Hebrew and Arabic script), then Lugdunum Bataviae, so the book was later used for travels as well. With very few coloured pictures or arms, but with many good quality prints of famous men. 182 x 130mm, in portrait format.


MS Douce 32 Dated 1583-1604. Vellum throughout, not many leaves, the only places dated are Bonn (several times) Constantinople (several times) and a note by an inhabitant of Venice (Venetys). On f.6r a painted picture of a giraffe said to be brought from Africa to Constantinople by Sultan Murad. Contains two important entries: 1. Italius Fredericus Comes / ab hohen Zollern /Bonnae 20 September 1599, and 2. Joannes Christopherus Comes ab Hohen Zollern Bonnae 20 septeb. Perhaps an Album Amicorum for a specific journey to Constantinople. 130 x 85mm, in portrait format.


MS Douce 221 Catalogued as 1598 but containing many items dated 1597 at the back, landscape format, containing simple signatures dating a visit through to extensive extracts of poetry and some sketches of coats of arms. Some pages written sideways to accommodate poetic structures, some full page illustrations in ink wash. At p.50 an inscription in gold ink. Some items written by men dedicated to the lady of the house. Perhaps to be seen as a guestbook. Landscape format. Gold leaf impressed pattern on binding with name of the owner Theodora van Wassenaer en Duuvenvoerden. 150 x 195mm, in landscape format.


MS Autograph g.3, Album Amicorum of G.F. Speidl. Paper. 1631 and following years all in French some coats of arms also ladies, monkeys, birds. Most items dated Bourges, Strassbourg, Londre, nearly all in French but one in Italian. 55 x 70mm, in landscape format.


  1. Douce 244, Album Amicorum of ********************, this volume appears to be most similar to our book in the selection and distribution of pictures, these are more closely distributed at the back, like ours, indicating that they were intended to provide a backdrop to the initial written entries which would also be begun from the back. With entries in Greek (f.41a), Spanish (f.42), French (f.36a), Italian (f.12r), but mostly in Latin. Some entries dated London or Oxford 1603. Subjects (1) arms, (2a) a monument, (3-30 blank), (31) a priest, (32) a man in red with a document, (33) a priest riding a horse, (34) a nobleman standing, (35) a man carrying oil, (37) a milkmaid and a fish-seller, (38) a lady with a mandolin, (39) a lady with train, (40r) a nobleman, (40b) a lady, (4) horseman with pannier, (42-48) ladies, (50), two men and two ‘land-sailors’ in a wagon moved by a sail, (51) a lady in black and red, (59) a courting couple in a boat with two oarsmen.


Conclusion from the comparison of the Giese Liber amicorum and ten others


Investigation of these other Liber Amicorum suggests that our example is highly unusual, it was conceived from the beginning as a book to accompany the owner on travels, it was begun and continued as a book for friends most of whom could be assumed to be German-French-Latin trilingual, and it was designed from the beginning to contain topical illustrations which would amuse the persons to whom it was shown. Its illustrations were captioned in French except for one which consists of a pun which is only funny in German, suggesting that a Swiss and educated German or French reader would switch between languages easily (and that the entire series of illustrations may derive from a German original). It illustrates the openness to the vernaculars among scholars which was completely lacking in the book from 1554-9. It also contains popular commercial art of the day in addition to the coats of arms common in a Liber Amicorum. (of course the painted arms in a Liber amicorum are usually painted later based on sketches made by the signatories with some code to indicate the colours). The most interesting aspect of the book is the connection with a variety of persons connected with the cities of the Hanseatic League and the almost universal German-French-Latin trilingualism of this group.